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L5, Hydrocarbons - toxicology

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 True and false 

1-Gastric lavage absolutely contraindicated in case of kerosene toxicity.

2-Gastro intestinal absorption of kerosene is mainly responsible for its toxicity.

31Gastric lavage and activated charcoal have a limited role in kerosene ingestion.

4-The lung is the primary target organ of kerosene ingestion.


Answers

1-F

2-F

3-T

4-T


❔MCQ

1-The most important and common complication of kerosene poisoning:

  1. Acute hepatic failure

  1. Bronchopneumonia

  1. Acute renal failure

  1. kerosene encephalopathy

2-In kerosene poisoning (all are true except): 

a) Episode of coughing and chocking occurs shortly after ingestion


B) Coma and seizures are common with large dose


C) Gastric emptying is always indicated /


D) Emergency stabilization of ABCs important line in treatment


3-Referred to decontamination after kerosene ingestion, all are true except


  1. Gastric lavage is indicated in both mild and severe ingestion.

  1. Gastric lavage better done after cuffed endotracheal tube.

  1. Syrup of ipecac is better to be avoided.

  1. Charcoal is not effective. 


4-Kerosene poisoning induces the following except

 a) Sensitizing the heart to the circulating catecholamine's


b)Decreasesthepermeability of vascular endothelium


C) Increase the susceptibility of cardiac dysthymia


D) Leads to leakage of plasma and blood into the alveoli

Answers  

  1. B

  2. C

  3. A

  4. B



Enumerate 

1-High risk groups for kerosene poisoning and method of affection?

2-Target organ for kerosene poisoning?

3-Pulmonary affection is mainly due to aspiration or gi absorption?

4-Causes of high aspiration risk of kerosene?

5-Mode of lung affection?

6-Cns depression causes?

7-Dysrhythmia in kerosene poisoning?

8-Cp of kerosene poisoning 

9-Fever in kerosene poisoning?

10-Treatment?


Answers  

Hydrocarbons


Hydrocarbons hydrogen atoms.are organic compounds made up primarily of carbon and


They include: Plants (pine oil, vegetable oil), animal fats (cod liver oil), natural gas, petroleum distillates, and coal tar.


The principal commercial source of hydrocarbons involves petroleum distillates.


There are three main types of hydrocarbons: Aliphatic (straight or branched chains), aromatic (closed ring) and halogenated hydrocarbons.


Kerosene Poisoning


_ It is one of the petroleum distillates (aliphatic hydrocarbon).


. It is a volatile, colorless, irritant liquid with a characteristic odor, used in domestic purposes mainly as a heating fuel or in lamps.


_ Insecticides, and other toxic chemicals may be mixed with it, and these additives can be more dangerous than kerosene itself. The individuals at risk group are:


Children, especially those younger than 5 years with unintentional exposure. They often ingest kerosene as it is a household product frequently stored in unmarked containerorin softdrink bottles.


Workers with occupational exposure through dermal or inhalation of its usually in a chronic form.


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