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Pathology_L1,Cells of the CNS and cell response to Injury

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 L1,Cells of the CNS and cell response to Injury 

Lecture video


Lecture data

Glial cells
‘’Assistant ‘’ Non-neuronal
1-Nutrition
2- Homeostasis
3-Form myelin
4-assist in signal transmission

Reaction of astrocytes to injury
• Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of Astrocytes
• with accumulation of intermediate filment
protien "Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)"
• THIS IS CALLED "Gliosis"
• it is the most important histopathologic
indicator of CNS injury

MENINGITIS 
• Types: .Suppurative 
viral.TB .Syphilitic
it is inflammation of meningis
Dura---> Pachymeningitis
pia and arachnoid-->leptomeningitis

Viral meningitis
1. In Young age
2.By: CMV , Herpes , Polio virus
3.More and More lymphocytes , Slight increase in protien

Suppurative (septic)Meningitis
• MCQ:commonest Meningococci
• in infants and young (Sporadic or epidemic)
MCQ: newborn Escherichia coli
MCQ:later in life Streptococcus pneumoniae

PATHOLOGY:
gross: Brain-->swollen
Blood vessels in meningis -->dilated
Subarachnoid space-->Yellow exudate
Ventricles --->Dilated CSF -->contains pus
Ependymal lining-->Necrotic choroid plexsus-->congested

MICROSCOPIC: subarachnoid space
• Dilated , congested & infilterated by polymorphs(some histocytes, lymphocytes,plasma cells,fibrin threads)

Encephalitis
inflammation of brain
1)Pyogenic —>brain abcess
2)bacterial toxin —>boutulism
3)Virus__>Herpes,rabies,,polio
4)Fungus—>cryptococcus
5)in immunocompromised(AIDS)—>Malaria and Toxoplasma

Viral encephalitis
• MCQ:Most common cause of non epidemic encephalitis HSV route of infection: from peripheral site to brain through neuronal
transmission through trigeminal or olfactory

Gross: brain edema and congestion and hemorrhage Ms:lymphocytes infiltrate meningis , hrg , perivascular cuffing
(leuckocyes / glial cells)

Complications:
Fever and headache--> seizures , altered consciousness Cranial nerve defects-->Ataxia, dyspahgia,Hemiparesis,visual loss
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