Pediatric _ Nephrology


 Nephrology 1

Nephrology 2

Nephrology 3


Q1. In chronic renal failure, there are all EXCEPT

A. Failure to thrive 

B. Hypertension 

C. Polyurea 

D. Increase in creatinine clearance E.Osteodystrophy 

Q2. Light microscopy in minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome shows 

A. Fusion of foot processes of epithelial cells

 B. Immune complex deposition 

 C. Proliferation pf epithelial and endothelial cells (

D. No abnormality detected 

E. Focal segmental sclerosis 

Q3. Indication of renal biopsy in nephrotic syndrome includes

 A. Repeated infection

 B. Microscopic hematuria

 C. Pyuria

D. Impaired renal function

E. Hyperlipidemia  

Q4 Vesico-ureteric reflux is diagnosed by

A. Micturition cystourethrogram 

B DMSA scan

C. Abdominal ultrasound 

D. CT abdomen and pelvis

 E. Intravenous pyelography  

Q5. Hematuria due to renal stone is characterized by 

A. Cola coloured urine

 B. Presence of blood clots 

C. Moderate proteinuria 

D. Painless

 E. Dysmorphic RBCs is positive   

Q6 3 years old child presents with abdominal mass and microscopic hematuria. The MOST likely tumor is 

A. Hodgkin disease

B. Ewing sarcoma 

C. Wilms tumor 

D. Renal cell carcinoma

E. Rhabdomyosarcoma

Q7 Which of the following is NOT a cause of prerenal failure

A. Nephrotic syndrome

B. Septicemia

C. Shock

D. Hemolytic anemia

E. Burn  

Q8. Children with nephrotic syndrome are especially susceptible to infections such as cellulitis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and bacteremia, all the following are contributory factors EXCEPT

A. urinary losses of immunoglobulin G

B. urinary loss of complement factors

C. impaired opsonization of microorganisms

D. immunosuppressive therapy

E. urinary losses of immunoglobulin s 

Q9Which of the following is NOT included in urine analysis of 14 years old child with urinary tract infection 

A. Pus cells> 5/HPF

 B. Microscopic hematuria

 C. Lipoid casts 

D. Leucocyte esterase positive

E. Nitrate positive

Q10 End stage renal failure is defined as GFR below

A. 10 ml/min/1.73 m2

B. 15 ml/min/1.73 m2

C. 20 ml/min/1.73 m2

D. 25 ml/min/1.73 m2

E. 50 ml/min/1.73 m2

11. Indication for dialysis in ARF includes all, EXCEPT 

a. severe elevation of blood urea nitrogen 


c. Metabolic acidosis

d. Fluid overload 

Q12. Acid base disturbance in acute renal failure is

A. Metabolic acidosis 

B. Metabolic alkalosis

 C. Respiratory acidosis 

D. Respiratory alkalosis 

E. Mixed respiratory and metabolic acidosis 

Q13.A 9-year-old has hematuria and an increased serologic titer to antistreptolysin O (ASO). What will be the most likely finding?

(A) decreased serum C3

(B) IgA deposits in kidney biopsy

(C) decreased serum albumin

(D) decreased urinary protein/creatine ratio

(E) hypercalciuria 

Q14. Glomerular hematuria occurs in 

A. Urinary tract infection 

B. IgA nephropathy

 C. Hemophilia 

D. Renal stone 

E. Renal trauma  

15. The causes of hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome

a. Decreased lipase activity

b. Increased synthesis of the beta lipoprotein

Both a and b

d. None of the











10 B

11  B