Ophthalmology, retina

Part 1: L38, 39 anatomy, CRVO, CRAO

Lecture video



L38, 39 Retina part 2 : diabetic and hypertensive retinopathies

Lecture video



Retina Part 3: L40,41 retinal detachmentn, retinitis  pigmintosa and ARMD



Questions and Answers

1- The nutrition of fovea is through:

  • Long posterior ciliary arteries
  • Arterial circle of zinn
  • Choriocapillaris
  • Anterior ciliary arteries

Ans: c

2- The fovea contain which type of photoreceptors
  • Cones mainly
  • Cones only
  • Rods mainly
  • Rods only
Ans: b

3- The external limiting layer is formed by the ends of
  • Photoreceptors
  • Muller fibers
  • RPE
  • Bipolar cells
Ans: b

4- Cotton wool spots:
  • Indicate poor venous retinal outflow
  • Are microinfarcts of the nerve fiber layer
  • Are commonly seen in normal individual
  • Are seen with retinitis pigmentosa
Ans: b

5- Dot hemorrhage can be present in
  • Inner nuclear layer
  • Inner plexiform layer
  • Outer plexiform layer
  • All retinal layer
Ans: a

6- Flame shaped hemorrhage is present in :
  • Nerve fiber layer
  • Inner plexiform layer
  • Outer plexiform layer
  • All retinal layer
Ans: a

7- Macular edema is a finding in the following except:
  • Renal hypertension
  • Diabetic maculopathy
  • CRVO
  • CRAO
Ans: d

8- Each of the following can be a predisposing factor for CRVO except
  • Hypertension
  • Open angle glaucoma
  • Hyper mature senile cataract
  • Diabetes milieus
Ans: c

9- Embolic occlusion of the main arterial supply of retina presents with
  • Painless diminution of vision
  • Sudden painful diminution of vision
  • Gradual painless diminution of vision
  • Sudden painless altitudinal field loss
Ans: a

10- The most common cause of CRAO is
  • Spastic
  • Embolic
  • Increased IOP
  • Migraine
Ans: b

11- The patient with CRVO will need PRP if:
  • Angiogram demonstrates retinal non perfusion areas
  • Macula develops cystoid macular edema
  • Iris neovascularization develops
  • There is relative afferent pupillary defect
Ans: c

12- a diabetic patient complaining of rapid deterioration of vision over night, he suffers most probably from:
  • macular exudates
  • tractional retinal detachment
  • vitreous hemorrhage
  • macular microaneurysms
Ans :c

13- stages of diabetic retinopathy include all except:
  • non proliferative diabetic retinopathy
  • diabetic maculopathy
  • proliferative diabetic retinopathy
  • pre proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Ans: b

14- a hypertensive patient developed an acute attack of marked diminution of vision. On fundus examination all of the following can be found except:
  • macular star
  • macular hole
  • retinal vein occlusion
  • retinal artery occlusion
Ans: b

15- the etiology of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in most conditions due to:
  • the traction by vitreous hemorrhage
  • the development of retinal breaks
  • effusion in the choroidal vessles
  • intra ocular tumors
Ans: b

16- risk factors for the development of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment includes all except:
  • aphakia
  • hypermetropia
  • trauma
  • history of retinal detachment in the other eye
Ans: b

17- retinitis pigmentosa may be associated with all of the following conditions except:
  • open angle glaucoma
  • anterior subcapsular cataract
  • keratoconus
  • high myopia
Ans: b

18- ring scotoma is a field defect observed in cases of
  • retinitis pigmentosa
  • anterior polar cataract
  • macular degeneration
  • early papilledema
Ans: a