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L6, Asphyxia, Forensic

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Lecture video part 2 



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 MCQ 

1- A female cadaver was found hanged from a fan with her feet touching the ground; one of the following features can be used as a clue for diagnosis of this cause of death…………………………………………….. 

a. outward fracture of hyoid bone. 
b. bruising in deep muscles of the neck. 
c. inward fracture of hyoid bone. 

d. abrasion and contusions around the neck. 


2- An adult man aged 25 years old drooped on the ground suddenly after laughing with his friend that struck him accidentally on his neck. The expected mechanism of death may be……………….…………………….. 

a. laryngeal compression & occlusion of airway. 

b. fracture dislocation of upper cervical vertebrae. 
c. reflex vagal inhibition of heart. 
d. venous air embolism. 

3- Examination of a case with typical hanging shows that…………………. 

a. the knot is at the back of neck. 

b. the body is fully suspended in the air. 

c. part of body is touching ground. 

d. the knot is at any site. 


4- An alcoholic old man was found dead in his house in an upside-down position and a bottle of alcohol was found beside him. The expected cause of death is……………………………………………………………... 
a. chocking. 
b. traumatic asphyxia. 
c. positional asphyxia. 
d. hanging. 

5- An infant aged 10 months old was found dead suddenly in his cot at the morning. His mother found him turned on his face and buried in a soft pillow. The suspected cause of death may be………………………………

a. Traumatic asphyxia. 

b. Smothering. 
c. Hanging. 
d. chocking 

6- Burking is defined as………………………………………………………..

a. mechanical asphyxia. 

b. overlaying plus crucifixion. 
c. mechanical asphyxia plus choking. 
d. mechanical asphyxia plus smothering. 

7- The stage of expiratory dyspnea of asphyxia is characterized by………... 

a. increased movement of extraordinary muscles of respiration. 
b. flaccidity of muscles and loss of reflexes. 
c. constricted pupils. 
d. cheyne – stokes respiration. 


8- Ambient anoxia occurs due to……………………………………………... 

a. paralysis of respiratory muscles. 
b. occlusion of respiratory openings. 
c. reduction of oxygen content in the atmosphere. 
d. spasm of respiratory muscles. 


9- In asphyxial deaths, the fluidity of blood depends mainly upon………... 

a. the nature of death. 

b. the manner of death. 

c. the cause of death. 

d. the rapidity of death. 


10- In asphyxia. The cause of occurrence of edema of the face is…………. 

a. obstruction of venous return of blood to the heart. 

b. increasing of arterial pressure. 

c. accumulation of reduced blood. 

d. increasing of intracranial tension. 


11- In mechanical asphyxial deaths, Silvery spots may be found as……… 

a. subpericardial shinning grey spots. 
b. subglial shinning grey spots. 
c. subpleural shining grey spots. 
d. submucosal shinning grey spots. 


12- The pathological cause that may lead to choking is……………………

a. fulminating epiglottitis. 

b. inhalation of a foreign body. 
c. acute coronary spasm. 
d. acute oesophagitis. 

13- The most common mechanism of asphyxia in Human pile deaths is…… 

a. reflex vagal inhibition of the heart. 

b. mechanical due to chest compression by stampeding people on the top of each other. 
c. choking due to obstruction of internal airways. 
d. smothering caused by obstruction of external airways. 


14- Postmortem external signs of smothering may be prominent when obstruction occurred by………………………………………………….. 

a) a soft material during a robbery. 

b) mother's breast in accidental infanticide during breast feeding. 

c) both hands during kidnapping. 

d) a plastic bag in children during playing. 


15- In strangulation, loss of consciousness occurs within…………………… 

a. 10-15 seconds. 

b. 5 minutes. 
c. 4-5 seconds 
d. 5 minutes. 

16- An adult female was found dead at her room in a hotel with a ligature mark around her neck, one criterion can be used to confirm the ligature strangulation as a cause of death…………………………………………... 

a. upward oblique position of ligature mark. 

b. oedema and congestion of the face. 

c. inward fracture of hyoid bone. 

d. outward fracture of hyoid bone. 


17- The rope mark of ligature strangulation is characterized by…………... 

a. cutting deeply through the neck when a soft material is used. . 
b. slanting obliquely upward toward nape of the neck. 
c. cutting deeply through the neck when thin tough ligature is used.
d.encircling the neck completely when long thick hair is interposed. 

18- A 30 –year- old female was found dead in a garden with multiple rope marks around her neck, a postmortem examination revealed a recent tear in the hymen, One of the following can be used as a definite clue of homicidal manner of death from strangulation with application of excessive force……………………………………………………………...

a. outward fracture of hyoid bone. 

b. multiple contusions and abrasions at the inner aspects of thighs. 
c. severe tearing of carotid arteries. 
d. complete horizontal mark around the neck. 

19- Numerous nail abrasions on the left side of the victim's neck indicate that throttling was done by..………………………………………………

a. both hands of the assailant. 

b. the right hand. 
c. the left hand 
d. the forearms. 

20- An autopsy finding that is NOT present in a case of throttling is…….… 

a. fingernail abrasions on one side of the neck. 

b. bruising in the deep muscles of the neck. 
c. tearing of the sternomastoid muscles. 
d. bruising of the protruded tongue. 

21- An adult female was found dead at her bathroom, there were disturbed furniture and broken door. Autopsy revealed presence of semilunar and linear scratching fingernail abrasions at sides of her neck with inward fracture of hyoid bone, the linear scratching marks can be used in…………………………………………………………………………….. 

a. identification of the assailant. 

b. detecting whether the assailant is left or right – handed. 
c. detecting if throttling is by one or both hands. 
d. confirming the resistance of the victim. 

22- In case of drowning deaths, froth in the mouth is characterized by being………………………………………………………………………... 

a. fine, white & persistent. 
b. coarse & bloody. 
c. offensive. 
d. fine, offensive & persistent. 

23- In suicidal hanging, if the victim changed his mind, he will fail to save himself due to……………………………………………………………… 

a. obstruction of carotid arteries will rapidly induce cerebral anoxia. 

b. injury of the spine and spinal cord. 

c. fracture of the spine. 

d. injury to the base of the skull. 


24- The characteristic injury in judicial hanging may be………….……...… 

a. laceration of sternomastoid muscle. 

b. small transverse tears in the intima of carotid arteries. 

c. injury of the spinal cord and fracture of the spine. 

d. fracture of thyroid cartilage. 


25- Hypostasis of drowned body is similar to that of CO-poisoning in……………………………………………………………………………… 

a. its distribution. 

b. absence of CO in blood. 

c. the oxygenation of the dependent blood. 

d. its color. 


26- An adult male was found hanged with the point of suspension is placed centrally over the occiput. This type of hanging is……………………… 

a. complete. 

b. incomplete. 
c. typical. 
d. atypical. 

27- In cases of death by drowning, the diatoms is absent in……………..…. a. the decomposed bodies. 

b. spleen. . 

c. the enclosed organs especially the bone marrow. 
d. liver & kidney.

28- The course of the ligature mark of hanging may resemble that of strangulation when………………………………………………………….. 

a. the loop is arranged with a fixed knot. 

b. a running noose or double turn of the cord is used. 

c. the head falls away from the knot. 

d. the ligature not surrounds the neck. 


29- Postmortem suspension to simulate suicidal hanging can be differentiated by…………………………………………………………… 

a. position of the robe mark. 

b. rigor mortis. 
c. flaccidity of the muscles. 
d. distribution of hypostasis. 

30- In hanging if a rope with a fixed knot is used, the ligature mark is characterized by being……...……………………………………………. 

a. a complete groove encircles the neck. 

b. deep at the point of suspension. 

c. an inverted V-shaped with its apex at the knot. 

d. associated with multiple marks around the neck. 


31- An autopsy finding that is NOT present in a case of hanging is……..…
a. excessive salivation at the corners of the mouth. 

b. dry and glistening tissues under the ligature mark. 

c. swollen protruded tongue with black tip. 
d. inward fracture at the greater horns of hyoid bone.

32- The most common position of, ligature mark in hanging is……………... 

a. below thyroid cartilage. 
b. above hyoid bone. 
c. above thyroid cartilage. 

d. at the level of thyroid cartilage. 


33- A male aged 25 years was arrested by mob while he commits a crime then tied on a tree and hanged by people. This is called………...………... 

a. garrotting. 

b. mugging. 

c. lynching. 

d. execution. 


34- A dead body was recovered from the river, on examination; there were a fissured fracture of the skull and blood filling brain sulci. The best diagnostic feature of death from drowning is…………………….….. 

a. hypostasis of head, neck and front of chest. 

b. washerwoman hand with soddeness and wrinkles of skin. 

c. presence of white, tenacious, odorless froth at mouth and nostrils. 

d. peeling of the epidermis of hands and feet. 


35- Drowning in hypertonic sea water leads to……………………………... 

a. withdrawn of water by osmosis from plasma into the fluid of alveolar spaces. 

b. hemconcentration and hyponatremia. 

c. hypotension and ventricular fibrillation. 

d. death within 2-3 minutes. 


36- The mechanism of death in dry drowning is caused by……………....... 

a. entry of water into the lungs as a protective mechanism. 

b. excessive cutaneous vasodilatation in alcholics. 

c. laryngeal spasm & paralysis of respiratory center. 

d. cerebral oedema & compression on respiratory center. 


37- Mechanism of death in secondary drowning is due to………………….. 

a. pneumonitis or pulmonary edema. 

b. spasm of laryngeal muscles. 

c. sudden rush of cold water into larynx. 

d. cerebral edema & compression on respiratory center. 

38- The mechanism of occurrence of cutis anserine as a sign of immersion is…………………………………………………………………………… 

a. granular and puckered appearance of the skin. 

b. contraction of erector pili muscles. 
c. the detachment of the thick keratin of the skin. 
d. cadaveric spasm. 





Answers

1. a

2. c

3. a

4. c

5. b

6. d

7. a

8. c

9. d

10. a

11. c

12. a

13. b

14. c

15. a

16. c

17. c

18. c

19. b

20. d

21. d

22. a

23. a

24. c

25. d

26. c

27. b

28. b

29. d

30. c

31. d

32. c

33. c

34. c

35. a

36. c

37. a

38. b


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