L4,5, Protein energy malnutrition, Pediatrics

 Lecture video part 1 


Lecture video part 2 


Lecture video part 3

Treatment of protein energy malnutrition

Lecture video part 4


Lecture video part 5

Rest of Rickets




1. 3 years old male child from South America is brought in for an adoption physical examination. He has a 4–5 mm, foamy, mildly vascular, conjunctival lesion next to the cornea on the medial side of both eyes.
Which nutrient deficiency is most likely to cause this lesion? 
A. vitamin A 
B. vitamin B6 
C. thiamine 
D. copper 
E. riboflavin

2. Which of the following is NOT a manifestations of vitamin D toxicity? 
A. Hepatomegaly 
B. Anorexia 
C. Constipation  
D. Anxiety 
E. Polyuria

3. Which of the following is an early sign of rickets? 
A. Hypotonia  
B. Craniotabes  
C. Bow-legs  
D. Harrison’s groove 
E. Marfan sign

4. 1.5 years old male presented with delayed walking, his X ray wrist and hand revealed active rickets.
Which of the following is a laboratory changes in active vitamin D deficiency rickets? 
A. Low level of alkaline phosphatase  
B. High serum phosphorus  
C. Elevated level of parathormone  
D. High serum calcium 
E. Low serum magnesium

5. A 5-year-old boy complaining Cheilosis and glossitis.
These are features of which of the following? 
A. Vitamin A deficiency  
B. Riboflavin (B2) deficiency 
C. Vitamin C deficiency  
D. Pyridoxine (B6) deficiency 
E. Vitamin E deficiency

6. Ahmad is 15 months old. His mother went to the doctor because he has no teeth and has deformity during standing (bow legs).On examination, the child is macrocephalic with frontal bossing, shows broadening in all limbs and mild abdominal distention. 
What are the laboratory finding EXPECTED in this child? 
A. Low serum calcium 
B. High serum phosphate 
C. High level of alkaline phosphatase 
D. Low level of parathormone 
E. High level of vitamin D

7. Recurrent diarrhea in kwashiorkor may be due to which of the following? 
A. increased absorptive enzymes.  
B. Iron deficiency 
C. lactose intolerance  
D. Cow milk allergy 
E. Irritable bowel syndrome

8. What is the nutritional deficiency that can lead to delayed walking and Swelling of the joints? 
A. Scurvy 
B. Zinc deficiency 
C. Thiamine deficiency 
D. Pyridoxine deficiency 
E. Vitamin D deficiency

9. Delayed closure of Anterior fontanelle not present in
A. Down's syndrome
B. Rickets
C. Phenyleketonuria
D. Cretinism
E. Hydrocephalus

10. All of the following are true about laboratory manifestations of kwashiorkor except:  
a. Persistent ketonuria.  
b. Hypoalbuminemia.  
c. Hypoglycemia.  
d. Potassium deficiency.


1. A
2. A
3. B
4. C
5. B
6. C
7. C
8. E
9. C
10. A